After reviewing and studying this module’s content, answer the following questions. Be sure to complete all lab activities and attend/watch all live lectures before completing this assignment. All of your answers should be written in your own words, using full sentences, correct terminology, and proper spelling and grammar.
- Explain the anatomical concepts associated with the lymphatic and immune systems. Summarize this module’s key points in 5-6 sentences.
- Explain the physiological concepts associated with the lymphatic and immune systems. Summarize this module’s key points in 5-6 sentences.
- How will you apply the concepts you have learned about the lymphatic and immune systems in real life and in your future career?
- Which topic within this module has been the most valuable to your learning experience and why?
- Which topic(s) within this module did you struggle to understand and why?
- (Optional) Do you have any suggestions for your instructor on how they could help you connect with the difficult topics you’ve noted?
Immune system is the defence system by which body evade the invading the microorganisms and prevent the their pathology to cause disease.
Immunity is either by birth called innate immunity and acquired immunity.
Anatomy of lymphatic system and immune system :
Inmune system : It contains the white blood cells in it and they are produced from different organs such as the bone marrow ,thymus.
Other lympatic organs are : lymph nodes and spleen and tonsils.
Bone marrow which is present within the bone will give the hematopoietic stem cells and forms the precursor lymphatic cells such as the B and T lymphocytes.
B lymphocytes get matured within the bone marrow where as T lymohocytes get matured in the thymus.
Other lympatic cells : Neurtophils, macrophages, monocytes, eosinophils , dendritic cells and natural killer cells.
There are number of lymph nodes which are located within the body at different regions.
Ex: Supraclavicular lymph nodes ,axillary nodes ( anterior,medial and lateral groups ),inguinal lymoh nodes ,submental lymph nodes etc..
All lymph nodes are composed of the B and T lymohocytes in them.
Lymphatic system : which carry the lymphatic fluid back to the blood.
It is formed by the : lymphatic capillaries join together and forms lymphatic channels , lymphatic channels join together and forms vessels and then eventually forms the large lympatic vessel such as thoracic duct.
Lymphatic channels are made of three layers ; tunica intima ,media and adventitia.
They have valves in their lumen and which prevent the backflow of lymphatic fluid i.e one way carry of lymphatic fluid the venous blood.
Forward flow of lymphatic fluid is possible by means of the contraction of the smooth muscles in the lymphatic channels.
First lymphatic fluid carry to near by lymph node and here if any mircoorganisms are there they get eliminated then lymphatic fluid comes through the efferent lymphatic channels and eventually drains into the venous blood.
Spleen is the lymphatic organ which is rich in the white blood cells and it is the greviad of the red blood cells because destruction of the red blood cells takes place in here.
Functions of lymphatic and immune system :
Together play role in the immunity.
Restoration of the blood volume and remove of excess of carbon dioxide to out.
Lymphatic drainage :
Right side of thorax ,face and right upper limb are drained into the right lympatic duct.
Rest all of the body lymphatic drainage is through the thoracic duct.